Friday, February 27, 2009

Self-Replication of DNA

Self-Replication of DNA

As known, cells multiply by dividing. While the human body is initially composed of a single cell, this cell divides and reproduces by folds with a ratio of 2-4-8-16-32...

The DNA molecule shown here is in the process of replication, separating down the middle. When strands separate, each attracts base pairs in the same sequence carried by its opposite half.

What happens to DNA at the end of this dividing process? There is only one DNA chain in the cell. However, it is evident that the newly formed cell will also require a DNA. In order to fill this gap, DNA completes an interesting series of operations, every phase of which is a different miracle. Finally, soon before the cell divides, it makes a copy of itself and transfers this to the new cell.

The observations regarding the cell division show that the cell has to reach a specific size before dividing. The moment it exceeds this particular size, the division process automatically starts. While the shape of the cell begins to get smoother so as to accommodate the division process, DNA starts to replicate itself as mentioned earlier.

This means that the cell 'decides' to divide as a whole and the different parts of the cell start to act in accordance to this decision of dividing. It is evident that the cell is devoid of the consciousness to accomplish such a collective action. The division process starts with a secret order and the entire cell, foremost DNA, acts by this order.

First, DNA divides into two to replicate itself. This event takes place in a very interesting manner. The DNA molecule which resembles a spiral ladder divides into two like a zip from the middle of the rungs of the ladder. From now on, DNA divides into two portions. The missing halves (replicates) of both of the two portions are completed with the materials present in the milieu. In this way, two new DNA molecules are produced. In every phase of the operation, expert proteins called "enzymes" that function like advanced robots take part. Though it seems simple at first sight, the intermediary processes taking place throughout this operation are so many and so complicated that to describe the whole event in detail would take pages.

The new DNA molecules that emerge during replication are checked repeatedly by inspector enzymes. If there is any mistake done - which can be quite vital, it is immediately identified and corrected. The erroneous code is removed and replaced by the correct one. All these processes take place at such a dazzling speed that while 3.000 base pairs are produced in a minute, on the other hand, all these pairs are checked repeatedly by the enzymes in charge and the necessary amendments are made.

In the newly produced DNA molecule, more mistakes can be done than normal as a result of external factors. In this case, the ribosomes in the cell start to produce DNA repair enzymes upon the order given by DNA. Thus, as DNA protects itself, it also guarantees the preservation of the generation.

The cells are born, they reproduce and die just like human beings. Yet the life spans of cells are much shorter than the life of the human they constitute. For instance, the majority of the cells that used to make up your body six months ago do not exist today. However, you are now able to survive because they have divided on time to leave their places to the new ones. For this reason, highly complex operations like multiplication of the cells and replication of DNA are vital processes which cannot tolerate even a minor mistake in regards to man's survival. However, the multiplication process runs so smoothly that the rate of error is only one in 3 billion base pairs. And this one error is eliminated by the higher control mechanisms in the body without causing any problems.

All through the day, while you are unaware, numerous operations and controls are made, many measures are taken in your body in an incredibly fastidious and responsible manner for you to lead your life without any problem. Every single thing carries out its duty successfully and completely. God has given to your service countless atoms and molecules, from the biggest to the smallest, from the simplest to the most complex, so that you may live a good and healthy life. Is even this blessing and favour alone not sufficient for you to give thanks? Or should one always wait for problems to occur in this perfect system before coming to one's senses?

The most interesting point is that these enzymes which help the production of DNA and control its composition are actually proteins produced according to the information coded in DNA and under the command and control of DNA. There is such an intertwined, perfect system at work that it is by no means possible for such a system to have attained this state by gradual coincidences. Just as DNA has to exist for the enzyme to exist, so the enzyme has to exist for DNA to exist, and for both to exist, on the other hand, the cell has to exist completely, down to its membrane and all other complex organelles it contains.

The theory of evolution asserting that living beings evolved 'step by step' as a result of 'beneficial coincidences' is explicitly refuted by the above mentioned DNA-enzyme paradox. This is because both DNA and the enzyme have to exist at the same time. And this shows the existence of a conscious Creator, that is, God.

Evolutionists Cannot Explain How the Information in DNA Originated and How It Differs in Every Species

While evolutionists can in no way bring any explanation to the subject of how DNA originated, there is yet another point where they reach an impasse. How come fish, reptiles, birds, human beings etc. have come to possess different DNAs and different types of information?

Evolutionists answer that question by saying that the body of information in DNA developed and diversified over time by means of coincidences. The coincidences they refer to are "mutations". Mutations are changes which take place in DNA as a result of radiation or chemical action. Sometimes radioactive radiation happens to fall on a DNA chain and destroys or displaces several base pairs therein. According to evolutionists, living things have reached their present perfect state as a result of the diversification of a single DNA due to these mutations (i.e., accidents).

Mutations are defined as breaks or replacements taking place in the DNAmolecule. These breaks or replacements are the result of external effects such as radiation or chemical action. Every mutation is an "accident" and either damages the nucleotides making up the DNA or changes their locations.

To show that this claim is unreasonable, let us compare DNA to a book again. We have already mentioned that DNA is made up of letters lined up sideways just like in a book. Mutations are like the letter errors that occur during the type-setting of this book. If you like, we can do an experiment on this subject. Let us ask for a thick book about the history of the world to be type-set. During the type-setting, let us intervene several times and tell the type-setter to press one of keys blindfolded and at random. Then let us give this text containing letter errors to someone else and have him do the same thing over again. Using this method, let us have the book type-set from the beginning to the end several times, thus having a few more letter errors added to it at random each time...

Could this history book ever develop by this method? For instance, would an additional chapter named "The History of Ancient China", which previously was not present, emerge?

To be sure, the letter errors we have added to the book would not develop it, but rather ruin it and distort its meaning. The more we increase the number of faulty copying processes, the more spoiled our book will be.

Yet the claim of the theory of evolution is that "letter errors help develop a book". According to evolution, mutations (errors) occurring in DNA have led to beneficial results by accumulating and thus furnishing living beings with perfect organs such as eyes, ears, wings, hands and consciousness-related qualities such as thinking, learning, and reasoning.

Unquestionably, this claim is even more unreasonable than the above example of the addition of the chapter called "The History of Ancient China" to a book on world history as a result of the accumulation of letter errors. (Moreover there is no mechanism in nature that causes regular mutations as in the example of the type-setter making regular mistakes. The mutations in nature take place much more rarely than the letter errors that would occur during the type-setting of a book.)

Left: A normal fruit fly (drosophila)
Right: A fruit fly with its legs jutting from its head; a mutation induced by radiation.

Every "explanation" put forward by the theory of evolution on the origin of life is unreasonable and unscientific. One outspoken authority on this issue is the famous French zoologist Pierre Grassé, the former president of the French Academy of Sciences. Grassé is also an evolutionist, but he states clearly that Darwinist theory is unable to explain life and makes his point about the logic of "coincidence", which is the backbone of Darwinism:

The opportune appearance of mutations permitting animals and plants to meet their needs seems hard to believe. Yet the Darwinian theory is even more demanding: A single plant, a single animal would require thousands and thousands of lucky, appropriate events. Thus, miracles would become the rule: events with an infinitesimal probability could not fail to occur… There is no law against daydreaming, but science must not indulge in it.

Indeed, the theory of evolution, which claims that lifeless matter came together by itself and formed living beings with such glorious systems as DNA, is a scenario totally contrary to science and reason. All this leads us to an evident conclusion. Since life has a plan (DNA) and all living beings are fashioned according to this plan, it is evident that there is a superior Creator Who devised this plan. This simply means that all living beings are created by God, the All-Powerful, All-Wise. God states this fact in the Qur'an in this way:

He is God – the Creator, the Maker, the Giver of Form. To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names. Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies Him. He is the Almighty, the All-Wise. (Surat al-Hashr: 24)

Today, what people have achieved by means of technology can at best be described as 'an approach to the understanding of a tiny fragment of God's knowledge, as manifested in human DNA.'

On the other hand, the theory of evolution which tries to explain the origin of life as a series of coincidences, loses all validity in face of the question: "How then, did DNA originate?"

The Language of the DNA Encyclopedia

The Language of the DNA Encyclopedia

The life of societies is based on information flow, and communication. The most important tool in the information flow between individuals and generations is language. Language is represented by specific codes, which are letters. English is a language made up of 26 letters or we may say 26 codes. These codes make up words and words in turn make up sentences. The information flow and storage is realised by means of these codes.

The language in the cell is similar to this. All the physical traits of a human being are stored in the cell nucleus being coded by this language, and it can be used by the cell again by way of this language. This language is that of the master molecule, called DNA. The DNA language is made up of 4 letters; A, T, G and C. Every letter represents one of the four special bases called 'nucleotides'. Millions of these bases line up in a meaningful sequence and make up the DNA molecule.

That is how the information in the data bank in the nucleus is stored. While we describe the coding system in this data warehouse, we will continue to use this letter analogy for the nucleic acid molecules which constitute DNA. These letters match in twos each forming a base pair in this way. These base pairs add on top of each other to form the genes. Each gene, which comprises one portion of DNA molecule, determines a particular feature of the human body. Countless properties like height, eye colour, the material and the shape of the nose, ear, and skull are formed by the command of the related genes. We can compare every one of these genes to the pages of a book. On thepages there are scripts made up of the letters A – T – G – C.

There are approximately 200,000 genes in the DNA of a human cell. Every gene is composed of a special sequence of nucleotides, the number of which ranges between 1000 and 186,000 according to the type of the protein it correlates. These genes hold the codes of nearly 200,000 proteins that function in the human body and control the production of these proteins.

The information stored in these 200,000 genes constitute only 3 %of the total information in DNA. The remaining 97 % still maintains its mystery today. The recent studies showed that this 97 % unknown part includes vital information about the survival of the cell and the mechanisms that control the highly complex activities within the body. Yet there is still a great distance to go.

The genes are located in the chromosomes. There are 46 chromosomes in the nucleus of every human cell (except for the reproduction cells). If we compare every one of the chromosomes to a book volume made up of gene pages, we may say that in the cell lies a 46-volume "cell encyclopedia" which covers all the characteristics of a human being. Remembering the previous encyclopedia example, this cell encyclopedia is equivalent to the knowledge contained in a 920-volume 'Encyclopedia Britannica'.

The sequence of letters in the DNA of every human is different. This is the basic reason why the billions of people who have ever lived on earth look different from each other. The basic structure and functions of organs are the same in every person. However, every person is created in such a detailed and special manner with such subtle differences that even though all people are created from the division of a single cell and have the same basic structure, billions of different people have come into existence.

Everyone in the world is unique - biochemically and pysically - thanks to a wondrous molecule (DNA), which includes a three-billion word set of biochemical instructions for building a human from scratch.

All the organs in our body are constructed within a plan outlined by our genes. To give a few examples, according to a gene map completed by scientists, in the human body, skin is controlled by 2,559, brain by 29,930, eye by 1,794, salivary glands by 186, heart by 6,216, chest by 4,001, lung by 11,581, liver by 2,309, intestine by 3,838, skeletal muscle by 1,911 and blood cells by 22,902 genes.

The sequential order of the letters in DNA determines the structure of a human being down to his slightest details. In addition to features like height, eye, hair and skin colours, the DNA of a single cell also contains the design of 206 bones, 600 muscles, a network of 10.000 auditory muscles, a network of 2 million optic nerves, 100 billion nerve cells, and 100 trillion cells in the body.

Now let us think in the light of the above information: Since even a letter cannot form without a writer writing it, how did billions of letters in the human cell originate? How did these letters queue up in a meaningful sequence so as to make up the unique plan of such a perfect and complex body? If there were any break downs in the order of these letters you could have your ear on your abdomen or your eyes in your heels. You could have born with your hands stuck on your back, and lived as a freak. The secret of your living as a proper human currently lies in the 'flawless' sequence of the billions of letters in the 46-volume encyclopedia in your DNA.

DNA Challenges Coincidence

Today mathematics has proved that coincidence does not play a role in the formation of the coded information within DNA, let alone the DNA molecule made up of millions of base pairs. The probability of the coincidental formation of even a single gene out of the 200,000 genes making up DNA is so low that even the notion of impossible remains weak. Frank Salisbury, an evolutionist biologist, makes the following statement about this 'impossibility':

A medium protein might include about 300 amino acids. The DNA gene controlling this would have about 1,000 nucleotides in its chain. Since there are four kinds of nucleotides in a DNA chain, one consisting of 1,000 links could exist in 4 1000 forms. Using a little algebra (logarithms) we can see that 4 1000 =10 600 . Ten multiplied by itself 600 times gives the figure 1 followed by 600 zeros! This number is completely beyond our comprehension.

That is to say that even if we assume that all the necessary nucleotides are present in a medium, and that all the complex molecules and enzymes to combine them were available, the possibility of the these nucleotides being arranged in the desired sequence is 1 in 4 1000 , in other words, 1 in 10 600 . Briefly, the probability of the coincidental formation of the code of an average protein in the human body in DNA by itself is 1 in 1 followed by 600 zeros. This number, which is beyond even being astronomical, means in practice 'zero' probability. This means that such a sequence has to be effected under the control and knowledge of a wise and conscious power. There is zero probability of it happening by 'accident', 'chance', or 'coincidence'.

The probability of the coincidental formation of the code of an average protein in the human body in the DNA by itself is 1 in 10 600 . We can write this number which is formed by putting 600 zeros next to 1 as follows:

10 600 =

1, 000, 000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000, 000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,

Think of the book you are reading right now. How would you regard someone who claimed that letters (by using a different printing stamp for every letter) have come together by chance on their own to form this writing? It is evident that it was written by an intelligent and conscious person. This is no different from the status of DNA.

Francis Crick

Francis Crick, the biochemist who discovered the structure of DNA, won a Nobel prize with respect to the research he had made on the subject. Crick, who was an ardent evolutionist, stated the following scientific opinion in a book he has written after testifying the miraculous structure of DNA:"An honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now, could only state that, in some sense, the origin of life appears at the moment to be almost a miracle." Even in Crick's view, who was one of the biggest experts on DNA, life could never originate on earth spontaneously.

The data in DNA, which is made up of 5 billion letters, is composed of a special and meaningful sequence of letters A-T-G-C. However, not even a single letter error should be made in this sequence. A misspelled word or a letter error in an encyclopedia may be overlooked and ignored. It would not even be noticed. However, even a single mistake in any base pair of DNA, such as a miscoded letter in the 1 billion 719 million 348 thousand 632 nd base pair, would cause terrible results for the cell, and therefore for the person himself. For instance, haemophilia (child leukemia) is the outcome of such an erroneous coding.

In truth, it would be incorrect to call this "erroneous coding", because like every other thing that exists, the human DNA, too, is created by God and even the seldom occurring mistakes come about with respect to a hidden cause (divine purpose). The coding mistake which causes cancer is a specially created disorder. It is created specially for a certain hidden cause to show man his own weakness and impotence, remind him of the delicate balances man's creation depends on, and of what kind of troubles he may face in case of the slightest disturbance in these balances.

Wednesday, February 25, 2009

The Secret World of DNA

The Secret World of DNA

The DNA, which is found in the nucleus of each of the 100 trillion cells in our body, contains the complete construction plan of the human body. It is evident that such a complex molecule could not be formed by coincience spontaneously, as a result of an evolutionary process.

In the manufacture or management of a technological product or plant, the greatest tool employed is the experience and accumulation of knowledge that man has acquired over many centuries. The necessary knowledge and experience needed for the construction of the human body, the most advanced and sophisticated 'plant' on earth, is stored in DNA. The important point to note here is that DNA has always existed since the first human being in all its present perfection and complexity. As you read the lines below, you will also come to see clearly how unreasonable it is to claim, as evolutionists do, that such a molecule, with all its mind-blowing structure and properties, originated as a result of coincidences.

DNA is delicately protected in the nucleus located in the center of the cell. When it is recalled that human cells – numbering up to 100 trillions – have an average diameter of 10 microns(A micron is 10 -6 m.), the smallness of the area in question is better understood. This miraculous molecule is a clear evidence of the perfection and extraordinary nature of God's art of creation. It is so much so that even a special branch of science has been set up to explore the secrets of this molecule, many of which still remain hidden. The name of this branch of science is "Genetics". Recognized as the science of the 21 st century, genetics is still in the phase of crawling, as far as solving the mystery of DNA is concerned, despite all the technological means at its disposal.

Life in the Nucleus

If we compare the human body to a building, the body's complete plan and project down to its minute technical detail is present in DNA, which is located in the nucleus of each cell. All the developmental phases of a human being in the mother's womb and after birth take place within the outlines of a predetermined program. This perfect order in the development of man is stated as follows in the Qur'an:

Does man reckon he will be left to go on unchecked? Was he not a drop of ejaculated sperm, then a blood-clot which He created and shaped. (Surat Al-Qiyama, 36-38)

Right at the phase of a newly fertilized egg cell in the mother's womb, all the characteristics we will bear in the future have been determined within a certain destiny and coded in our DNAs in an orderly fashion. All our characteristics, such as our height, skin colour, blood type, facial features that we will bear when we come to our thirtieth year are encoded in the nucleus of our inaugural cell thirty years nine months beforehand, starting from the moment of insemination.

The body of information in DNA does not only determine the physical properties we have mentioned above; it also controls thousands of other operations and systems running in the cell and the body. For instance, even the highness, lowness, or normality of a person's blood pressure depends on the information stored in DNA.

The Huge Encyclopedia in the Human Cell

The information stored in DNA must by no means be underestimated. Though hard to believe, in a single DNA molecule of a human being, there is enough information to fill exactly one million encyclopedia pages. Do consider it; exactly 1,000,000 encyclopedia pages… This is to say that the nucleus of each cell contains so much information as to fill a one-million-page-encyclopedia, which is used to control the functions of the human body. To draw an analogy, we can state that even the 23-volume-Encyclopedia Britannica, one of the greatest encyclopedias of the world, has 25,000 pages. Therefore, before us lies an incredible picture. In a molecule found in a nucleus, which is far smaller than the microscopic cell wherein it is located, there exists a data warehouse 40 times bigger than the biggest encyclopedia of the world that includes millions of items of information. This means a 920-volume huge encyclopedia which is unique and has no equal in the world. Research puts it that this huge encyclopedia would be estimated to contain 5 billion different pieces of information. Were one piece of information present in human genes to be read every second, non-stop, around the clock, it would take 100 years before the process was completed. If we imagine that the information in DNA were put in the form of a book, then, these books put on top of each other would reach 70 meters high.

Let us repeat these two words just mentioned above; 'contain information'…

We should stop here and consider these two words which we pronounce so simply. It is simple to say that a cell contains billions of pieces of information. Yet, this is far away from being a detail that can be casually dropped as a remark. This is because what we talk about here is not a computer or a library, but just a cube that is 100 times smaller than a millimeter, simply made up of protein, fat and water molecules. It is an extremely amazing miracle for this infinitesimal piece of flesh to contain and store even a single bit of information-let alone millions of it.

The information necessary to specify the design of all the species of organisms which have ever existed on the planet, a number of approximately one thousand million, could be held in a teaspoon and there would still be room left for all
the information in every book ever written.

In the modern era, people use computers to store information. The computer technology is today considered as the most advanced technology that paves the way to all other technologies. A body of information, which, 20 years ago, could be stored in a computer the size of a room, can today be stored in small "microchips", yet even the latest technology invented by human intelligence after centuries of accumulated knowledge and years of hard work is far from reaching the information storage capacity of a single cell nucleus. We think that the following comparison would be sufficient to give a sense of the smallness of DNA, which has such an immense capacity:

The cell resembles a big factory which contains conveyor systems, information storing centers, special compartments where chemical processes are made, energy generating power stations, and packaging centers. The only difference between the cell and such a factory is the cell's microscopic size.

The information necessary to specify the design of all the species of organisms which have ever existed on the planet, a number according to G.G. Simpson of approximately one thousand million, could be held in a teaspoon and there would still be room left for all the information in every book ever written. 1

How can a chain invisible to the eye, made up of atoms arranged sideways, with a diameter the size of a billionth of a millimeter, possess such an information capacity and memory? And also add the following to this question: While each one of the 100 trillion cells in your body knows one million pages of information by heart, how many encyclopedia pages can you, as an intelligent and conscious human being, memorize in your entire life?

The Wisdom in the Cell

In this case, you must admit that any cell in your stomach or ear is much more learned than you, and since it makes use of this information in the most correct and perfect way, it is much more wise than you.

What, then, is the source of this wisdom? How come every one of the 100 trillion cells in your body has come to possess such an incredible wisdom? These are, after all, piles of atoms, and they are unconscious. Take the atoms of all the elements, combine them in different forms and numbers, obtain different molecules, still you can never obtain wisdom. Whether these molecules are big or small, simple or complex does not matter. You can never obtain a mind that will consciously organize any process and accomplish it.

Then how can it be that DNA, which is composed of the arrangement of a certain number of unwise and unconscious atoms in certain sequences, and enzymes, working in a harmonious way, is able to achieve much work and organise countless complicated and diverse operations in the cell in a perfect and complete manner? The answer to this is very simple; wisdom is not in these molecules or in the cell that contains them, but in the self who has brought these molecules into being, programming them to function as they do.

Shortly put, wisdom is present not in the work done, but in the creator of that work. Even the most developed computer is the product of a wisdom and intellect that has written and installed the programs to operate it, and then used it. Likewise, the cell, DNA and RNAs in it, and the human being made up of these cells are nothing but the works of the One Who created them as well as what they do. No matter how perfect, complete and striking the work is, the wisdom always lies with the owner of the work.

One day, if you found a diskette on the table in the computer laboratory, and after looking inside, discovered that it contains billions of items of information about you, the first question that would come to your mind would be who has written these pieces of information and why.

So, why don't we ask the same question for the cell? If the information in the diskette was written by someone, then by whom DNA, which has a much more superior and advanced technology, is designed in the most perfect manner, created, and placed in the tiny cell, which, by itself, is another miracle. Besides it has not lost any of its properties for thousands of years until our day. (Bear in mind that the brain of the human being who makes the diskette and saves the data in it, is also made up of these cells.) What can be more important for you than to question by whom and why these cells, that function non-stop for you to read these lines, see, breathe, think, in brief, to exist and continue to exist, have been brought into being?

Is not the answer to this question that which, in life, you must wonder about most?

A Few More Examples

It is a well-known method: the travellers, who get stuck in an isolated land as a result of a plane crash, draw a big 'X' to show their places to the rescue team that looks for them from the air. Using their belongings or the objects they have collected, they make a big cross-shaped sign. In this way the rescue team that sets out on reconnaissance from the air, sees this sign which is a 'product of wisdom' and understands that there are conscious living beings, that is, human beings in that place.

While travelling along on Turkish highways, you sometimes see inscriptions made of white stones on the slopes of the hills like; 'Everything is for the motherland'. How these writings have come to form on those hills is quite clear. In most cases, there is a military unit around and they write such inscriptions with white stones on the hill while clearing the zone.

The complex structure of a living cell was unknown in Darwin's day and at the time, ascribing life to "coincidences and natural conditions" was thought by evolutionist to be convincing enough. However, the probability of the formation of a cell by chance is as unlikely as the chance printing of a book caused by an explosion in a printing house. This means that it is not possible for the cell to come into being by coincidence and therefore, it definitely should have been "created".

Well, can anybody come up and say that these inscriptions are not written by a conscious mind, in this case the soldiers, and instead formed by coincidence? Can anybody say that 'these stones came side by side by chance while rolling down the hill and formed the sentence 'Everything is for the motherland'"?

Or if a 'scientist' comes up and says 'there are trillions of stones in the world and they have been rolling over for millions of years, so it is possible that some of these stones came together by coincidence as to make this meaningful sentence', would he not be ridiculed even by children? In addition to this, if he uses a scientific style, makes some scientific explanations, and puts forward some probability calculations, would everybody not further doubt about his mind?

The main idea we would like to give with these examples is this: If there is even the slightest sign of something planned somewhere, there certainly lies the traces of an owner of wisdom in that place. No product of wisdom would form by chance. If you roll white stones down the mountain billions of times, you would never obtain even a proper 'H', let alone a sentence such as "Everything is for the motherland". If there is a letter somewhere, everybody accepts that that letter is written by somebody. There would be no letter without a writer.

The human body is trillions of times more complicated than the sentence 'Everything is for the motherland', and it is definitely impossible for this complex structure to have been formed on its own, or by sheer "coincidence". Therefore, there is a Creator Who has planned and designed both the human and his cell and his DNA excellently and perfectly. To claim the contrary would be the most unwise thing possible, and moreover a greatest insincerity and insolence. This would be a great disrespect against the owner of that wisdom and power.

Nevertheless, many people, who would readily say that it is impossible for stones to be arranged within themselves and form even three little words, can listen without objection the deceit that it was all as a result of "coincidences" that billions of atoms came together one by one in a planned sequence and formed a molecule such as DNA, which performs such a super-complex task. This is just like a hypnotized person's submitting to the hypnotist and accepting by suggestion that he is a door, tree or a lizard…

Monday, February 23, 2009


The Miracle In The Atom

Why ?

Once the answer is found, this question is the key to a gate that leads one to a completely different world. It is, at the same time, a slim line that separates those who know from those who don't.

In the world in which we live, mankind is caught up in a continuous search for the answers to many questions like "what?", "how?" and "in what way?", and can make but little headway in answering them. It is unlikely for man to make his way to the truth unless he asks himself the question "why?" about the extraordinary order and balance with which he interacts.

In this book, we will deal with the subject of "the atom", the groundwork of every animate and inanimate thing. After seeing what occurs and in what way it occurs with regards to the atom, we will seek the answers to the question "why?" The answer to this question will take us to the truth we pursue.

Since the first half of the 19th century, hundreds of scientists worked day and night to reveal the secrets of the atom. These studies that uncovered the form, motion, structure and other properties of the atom shattered the very grounds of classical physics that assumed matter to be an entity without any beginning or end, and laid the foundation for modern physics. They also produced many questions.

Many physicists, looking for answers to these questions, finally agreed that there is perfect order, unerring balance and conscious design in the atom, as in everything else in the universe.

This truth is revealed in the Qur'an sent down by Allah fourteen centuries ago. As made clear in the verses of the Qur'an, the whole universe works in perfect order because the earth, the sky and everything in between is created by Allah, Who has infinite power and wisdom.

It is certainly no wonder that everything created by Allah has extraordinary excellence and runs within a flawless order. What comes as a real surprise is man's unrelenting insensitivity towards the numerous miracles he encounters, sees, hears, and knows – including his own body – and his negligence about the reason "why" these extraordinary details are presented to him.

Though dwelling on a scientific subject, the purpose of "The Miracle in the Atom" is different from that of conventional scientific books. This book deals with the "atom", unique in being the building block of both animate and inanimate objects, with the questions "what?", "how?" and "in what way?", thereby opening the door to the answer of the question "why?" Once beyond this door, the superiority of the wisdom and knowledge of Allah, and His creation will be revealed for all to see:

Allah, there is no god but Him, the Living, the Self-Sustaining. He is not subject to drowsiness or sleep. Everything in the heavens and the earth belongs to Him. Who can intercede with Him except by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them but they cannot grasp any of His knowledge save what He wills. His Footstool encompasses the heavens and the earth and their preservation does not tire Him. (Surat al-Baqara: 255)

With your body made up of atoms, you are breathing atoms in the air, eating atoms in food and drinking atoms of water. What you see is nothing other than the collision of electrons of the atoms in your eye with photons. And what about what you feel by touch? The sensations are simply formed by atoms in your skin repelling atoms of objects.

Indeed, almost everyone knows today that his body, the universe, the world, in short, everything consists of atoms. Yet, perhaps, most people so far never thought about what kind of a system the entity we call the atom has. Or, even if they did, they did not feel the need to investigate it, because they always thought this concerns physicists alone.

Man, however, lives entwined within this perfect system throughout his life. This is such a system that every one of the trillions of atoms forming the armchair on which we sit has an order about which a book could be written. It takes pages to tell the formation, the system and the power of a single atom. As the technology advances and our knowledge of the universe increases, these pages also increase.

How then did this order form? It cannot be that the particles scattered around after the Big Bang have formed the atom with a sudden decision, and then an appropriate environment was formed by chance, and these atoms have transformed into matter. It is certainly impossible to explain such a system by "chance". Everything you see around you, and even the air you cannot see, consist of atoms, and there is a very complex traffic between these atoms.

Who then can direct the traffic between the atoms? Can it be you? If you think that your body consists of atoms alone, then which one of your atoms directs which, and which atom directs what? Do the atoms of your brain that are no different from other atoms control the others? If we assume that the atoms of your brain are directors, then we have to answer these questions:

* If all atoms forming the brain are directors, how and based on what do they make their decisions?

* How do trillions of atoms forming the brain cooperate?

* Why does not a single atom out of trillions of them oppose the decision that is taken?

* How do the atoms communicate with each other?

Considering the above questions, it is obviously an illogical deduction to say that all of the trillions of atoms forming the brain are directors.

So, can it be correct to think that only one of these trillions of atoms is the director and the others are its followers? If we believe a single atom to be the director, then the questions that come to the mind are:

* Which atom is the director and who elected this atom?

* Where in the brain is this atom?

* What is the difference of this atom from the others?

* Why do the other atoms obey this atom unconditionally?

Before answering these questions, let us state one more thing: the supposed director atom is also made up of other particles. Why and under what pretext do these particles come together to form this director atom? Who controls these particles? Since there is another will directing these particles, how right would it be to defend that this atom is the director?

At this point, the claim that one of the atoms forming our brain may be the director atom is inevitably disproved. How do the countless number of atoms in the universe continue their existence in full harmony, while people, animals, plants, earth, air, water, objects, planets, space, and everything else are made of atoms? Which one of these countless atoms can be the director when it itself is made up of many sub-particles? To make such a claim or to attribute everything to chance and to deny the being of Allah, Who created all the worlds, is only "rejecting those signs in iniquity and arrogance in spite of their own certainty about them." (Surat an-Naml: 14)

Just think: a human being, who is made up of the arrangement of atoms in various combinations, is born, is fed with atoms and grows up with atoms. He then reads books made of atoms in a building made of atoms. Later, he receives a diploma composed of atoms that says "nuclear engineer" on it. Yet, he can still come and deliver speeches such as "these atoms have come together as a result of sheer coincidence, and the extraordinary system within them has formed by chance". If this is so, where does he derive the consciousness, will and intelligence to deliver this speech?

In almost every page of this book, we saw repeatedly that it is impossible for the atom making up every animate or inanimate thing in the universe, to be itself formed by chance. What we will say to those who, despite all we have told, still think that this phenomenon has come about by "chance" or taken its present form through the mechanism of "trial and error" will be no different from what the prophet Ibrahim, peace be upon him, said to the disbelievers:

What about the one who argued with Ibrahim about his Lord, on the basis that Allah had given him sovereignty? Ibrahim said, 'My Lord is He who gives life and causes to die.' He said, 'I too give life and cause to die.' Ibrahim said, 'Allah makes the sun come from the East. Make it come from the West.' And the disbeliever was dumbfounded. Allah does not guide wrongdoing people. (Surat al-Baqara: 258)

They said 'Glory be to You! We have no knowledge except what You have taught us. You are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.'(Surat al-Baqara: 32)



One of the most important factors for the continued existence of any country is its defence capability. As a nation, it must be in a constant state of preparedness to face all kinds of threats and dangers from external and internal sources. No matter how well developed and advanced a country may be, if it fails to defend itself, it could be brought to ruin with the launching of even a minor military offensive against it, or even a well-directed and unanticipated terrorist act. In the face of such threats, neither its natural resources, its technological prowess, not its economy will be of any avail. If the country in question is unable to defend itself, it may even cease to exist.

This is one of the reasons why significant amounts of the national income is regularly allocated to defence; nowadays, armed forces have to be provided with the most advanced weaponry, tools and equipment fitted with the latest technological features, and meticulous training has to be given to soldiers in an all-out attempt to keep defence systems fully functional.

No less than countries, people too have to be concerned about their defence, if they want to lead a healthy and peaceful life. They inevitably have to protect themselves and their possession against criminal acts, such as theft and murder, as well as against natural disasters, such as accidents, fire, earthquakes and floods.

But this is not the end of the matter. Human beings have other enemies, which go unseen by them and, as such, are often ignored. Actually, these enemies are much more resilient than the others. Serious measures must, therefore, be taken to guard against them.

Who, or what then these enemies that keep human beings under constant threat?

They are bacteria, viruses, and similar microscopic organisms, which may exist in the water we drink, the food we eat, the house we live in, and the office where we work. In essence, they are everywhere.

Most interestingly, in spite of being surrounded by such a serious threat, we make no effort whatsoever to protect ourselves against it. This is because there is a mechanism within our bodies, which undertakes this task on our behalf, providing the necessary protection for us, without causing us the slightest disturbance. This is "The Defence System".

It is one of the most important and amazing systems operating within our bodies, for it undertakes one of the most vital missions of life. We may not be aware of it, but all the elements of the immune system protect our bodies just like the soldiers of a huge army. The defence cells that protect the human body against invaders, such as bacteria, viruses, and similar micro-organisms, are equipped with extraordinary abilities. The patterns of intelligence, effort, and sacrifice, which these cells display during the war they wage in the body, astonish everyone who learns about them.

People in general would like to know what makes them ill, how illnesses take complete control of their bodies, what causes fever, fatigue, pain in their bones and joints, and which processes take place in their bodies throughout their illnesses.

The main purpose of this book is to explore how this system, which protects the human body just like a disciplined, organised army, has come into being and how it works.

These two points will lead us to very important conclusions. First, we shall together witness the uniqueness and the perfection in Allah's creation. Second, we shall observe what contradictions the theory of evolution, a superstitious belief having no verification whatsoever, includes within its own reasoning, and on what an unsound basis it was erected.

Before proceeding to the main topic, it will be useful to state another important point: In books on the immune system, you will often see statements such as:

"We do not yet know how this formed…"

"The reason still remains unknown…"

"Research on the topic is under way …"

"According to a theory…"

These statements are actually important confessions. These are expressions of the helplessness people experience at the outset of the 21 st century - even with all the latest technology and accumulated knowledge at their disposal - in the face of the miraculous work these tiny cells accomplish. The tasks achieved by these microorganisms include such intricate operations that the human mind can barely grasp the details of this well established system. There is obviously a secret wisdom hidden in the immune system which eludes man's understanding.

As you read this book, you will witness the superiority of this wisdom, hidden both in your cells and in other details pertaining to your body. The ultimate conclusion is that this could only be the wisdom of a supreme "Creator".

Science may one day succeed in solving all the secrets of the immune system and even produce a similar artificial system by imitating the actions of these cells. No doubt, this task will require highly educated professionals using the most sophisticated technology and instruments available, working in highly advanced laboratories. The most important point here is that the accomplishment of such a task would once again invalidate the theory of evolution, proving that such a system cannot originate by coincidence.

The likelihood of the spontaneous development of a mechanism such as the defence system currently seems too remote. As scientists unravel the secrets of this system, they are enthralled by the design they encounter. The points that are revealed lead to many other questions, which make the wisdom and consciousness in the cell all the more apparent. Therefore, it has become very clear that the defence system, like all the other systems in the body, could not have developed gradually, just by chance, as suggested by the theory of evolution.

The main purpose of this text is to introduce you to these "brave warriors" within you, while also proving to you that this mind-boggling system is a special sign of creation. In relation to this, we will see how the scenarios formulated by the theory of evolution are demolished and rendered meaningless when faced with the facts. The topic which will be particularly highlighted here, is not the biological details of the defence system, which are easily accessible in any book of biology or medicine, but the miraculous aspect of the system. We have especially avoided the unnecessary use of biological and physiological terms in order to make the contents of the book easily understandable to readers of all ages and professions.

Lastly, we want to remind you that even now, you are totally indebted to your defence system if you are able to read this book peacefully, without being infected by the microbes all around you. Had the immune system not existed in your body, you would never have been able to read this book, having left this world even before you learned reading and writing.

Before delving into the astounding details of the war of defence fought in the innermost recesses of our bodies, we must first have a general look at the defence system and its elements.

Briefly, the defence system may be defined as "an extremely disciplined, hard-working and organised army that protects the body from the clutches of external enemies." In this multi-faceted war, the main duty of the elements fighting in the front line is to prevent the enemy cells, such as bacteria or viruses, from entering the body.

Although it is not easy for the enemy organisms to enter the body, they exert themselves to the utmost to reach their ultimate goal of invading the body. When they successfully do so, after overcoming various obstacles such as the skin, and the respiratory and digestive tracts, they will find tough warriors waiting for them. These tough warriors are produced and trained in specialised centres such as the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph nodes. These warriors are "the defence cells" referred to as the macrophages and lymphocytes.

First, various types of phagocytes, which are called the "the eater cells" will swing into action. Then the macrophages, another specific type of phagocytes, take their turn. They all destroy the enemy by engulfing it. Macrophages also perform other duties such as summoning other defence cells to the battleground, and raising the body temperature. The rise in temperature at the onset of a sickness is very important, for the afflicted the person will feel fatigued by it and need to rest, thus reserving the energy needed to fight against the enemies.

If these elements of the immune system prove insufficient against the enemies penetrating the body, then lymphocytes, the champions of the system, come into play. Lymphocytes are of two types; B cells and T cells. These are again further divided into sub groups.

The helper T cells are next in reaching the battleground after the macrophages. They may be considered the administrative agents of the system. After the helper T cells identify the enemy, they warn other cells in order to initiate a war against it.

Thus alerted, the killer T cells come into play to destroy the besieged enemy.

The B cells are the armaments factory of the human body. Following their stimulation by the helper T cells, they immediately start to produce a sort of weapon called the "antibody".

After the alarm is over, suppressor T cells stop the activity of all defence cells, and therefore prevent the war from lasting any longer than is necessary.

However, the mission of the defence army has not yet ended. The warrior cells, called the memory cells, store necessary information about the enemy in their memories and keep it for years. This will enable the immune system to mount a quick defence against the same enemy at later meetings with it.

There are many more incredible factors hidden in the details of the defence system, which we have very briefly outlined above. As mentioned before, in this book, these extraordinary events are told in an easy-to-understand way.

In this book, we explained the not so well known aspects of the army inside you, that is, your defence system. We have deliberately directed attention away from the complicated details of the extraordinary jobs the defence cells do to "how" the system operates. We searched for the answer to the question: "How can such minute cells which can be viewed only under an electron microscope produce such a complicated system as the defence system?" We delved further and examined how these cells, which make up the immune system were initially formed.

All cells of the immune system are initially normal cells, which go through different educative stages ending with a "Sufficiency Exam". Only those cells that are able to recognise enemy cells and do not conflict with other normal bodily cells are allowed to live. How and when was the first cell developed and who held the first "sufficiency exam"? Who has taught the cell what to do?

It is clearly unexpected that cells and associated organs can converse freely with each other, work in total agreement, make plans, and implement these plans efficiently. Do not forget that the topic of discussion here is numerous bodily organs and one trillion cells. It is impossible to imagine that one trillion people could be organised in such a perfect way and fulfill their duties without anything being skipped, forgotten, or confused, or any kind of chaos being caused in the mounting of such a defence, which is a supremely difficult task.

There is a definite reality, which must be accepted, and that is: Allah Who possesses endless power, knowledge and wisdom has specially created cells, as well as everything in the universe without exception, from the smallest to the biggest.

... He created all things and He has knowledge of all things. (Surat al-An'am: 101)

This self-evident fact has been revealed in this text once again for all to see.

We mentioned that the unborn child in the mother's womb completes the missing components of its own defence system with the help of the antibodies received from its mother. However, if such possibilities were not available, or if these deficiencies continued following the child's birth, it would be impossible for the baby to survive. As we have repeatedly emphasised, given that mankind and countless other life forms are in existence today, this would mean that the defence system has been present from the very outset of life in its complete and fully functional form. It simply could not have been evolved in stages. It is a total impossibility that such an intensely complex system composed of interconnected, interdependent components, cells and elements could have been formed through minute coincidences over a period of millions of years.

Any person who suggests that everything has been formed through coincidences and refuses to accept that a "Creator" has created the entire universe, despite his awareness of the functioning of one or more than one miraculous system among numerous others continuously at work in his body, is also unaware that he has been mentioned in a clearly defined character type in the Qur'an some 1,400 years ago. Allah has revealed in the Qur'an that such people are unable to comprehend even clear and open realities due to deficiencies in their perception and comprehension:

... They have hearts they do not understand with. They have eyes they do not see with. They have ears they do not hear with... (Surat al-A'raf: 179)

Allah has again revealed that these people are actually aware of this situation;

They say, 'Our hearts are covered up against what you call us to and there is a heaviness in our ears. There is a screen between us and you...' (Surat al-Fussilat: 5)

Another group of disbelievers do see the realities presented, but proceed to deliberately hide the truth of what they have seen. This is the sole reason for the countless theories relating to the theory of evolution. The moment they accept the existence and majesty of Allah, they are obliged to submit to His will, which is an extremely difficult proposition for arrogant people. The Qur'an again sheds light on the plight of such people who take up a stance of an ignorant arrogance against Allah:

They repudiated them wrongly and haughtily, in spite of their own certainty about them… (Surat an-Naml: 14)

There are those who, for the sake of denying the existence of Allah, struggle to uphold the falsehood of evolution with a variety of theories that are far from any scientific or logical basis. Such is their determination that they defend their views with extremely ridiculous examples, claiming that such a sophisticated and complex system such as the immune system has developed in stages from a single antibody.

Those scientists who have become aware of the situation they are in have started to distance themselves from evolutionary associations, realizing the shameful nature of such explanations.

Another group of scientists accept the theory of evolution, not because it is accurate and they believe in it, but because there is no other theory to support their denial of Allah's existence.

However, there is no obligation to accept and follow a certain theory. When people become curious about the creation of the universe and its contents, it will be sufficient for them to assess the self-evident truths objectively and with a free mind.

As we have continuously stressed in this book, there is not a shred of evidence based on any trials, experiments or observations that could support the claims of the theory of evolution. Scientific disciplines such as biology, biochemistry, microbiology, genetics, palaeontology and anatomy have made it clear that the theory of evolution is an imaginary hypothesis about events which have never taken place and nor can ever take place. (See the chapter on "The Deception of Evolution").

Today, all research carried out in various branches of science, shows that all living and non-living beings on the earth and in the sky have been created by an All-Powerful and Almighty Creator Who possesses eternal wisdom, knowledge and might. To see this fact, and to understand the fictitious nature of fabricated theories, such as that of evolution, advanced technology or scientific knowledge is not necessarily required. Allah has displayed the evidence of His existence and creation for everyone who has a clear mind and conscience to see, irrespective of which historical era he lives in, be it the dark ages or the middle ages:

In the creation of the heavens and earth, and the alternation of the night and day, and the ships which sail the seas to people's benefit, and the water which Allah sends down from the sky - by which He brings the earth to life when it was dead and scatters about on it creatures of every kind - and the varying direction of the winds, and the clouds subservient between heaven and earth, there are Signs for people who use their intellect. (Surat al-Baqara: 164)

The duty that falls to those people of understanding, who can grasp the above verse fully, is to constantly recall the obvious "fact of creation" evident in the whole universe from the cells to giant galaxies, by quoting the following words of the Qur'an;

… Your Lord is the Lord of the heavens and the earth, He Who brought them into being. I am one of those who bear witness to that. (Surat al-Anbiya': 56)